Facts and Figures

Egypt: People

Population:
82,079,636 (July 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 15

Age structure:
0-14 years: 32.7% (male 13,725,282/female 13,112,157)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 26,187,921/female 25,353,947)
65 years and over: 4.5% (male 1,669,313/female 2,031,016) (2011 est.)

Median age: 
Total: 24.3 years
Male: 24 years
Female: 24.6 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate:
1.96% (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 57

Birth rate: 
24.63 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64

Death rate: 
4.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 193

Net migration rate: 
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 124

Urbanization: 
Urban population: 43.4% of total population (2010)
Rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major cities – population: 
Cairo (capital) 10.902 million; Alexandria 4.387 million (2009)

Sex ratio: 
At birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
Total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 
Total: 25.2 deaths/1,000 live births
Country comparison to the world: 81
Male: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
Female: 23.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: 
Total population: 72.66 years
Country comparison to the world: 123
Male: 70.07 years
Female: 75.38 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate: 
2.97 children born/woman (2011 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65

HIV/aids – adult prevalence rate: 
Less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 126

HIV/aids – people living with HIV/aids: 
11,000 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 95

HIV/aids – deaths: 
Fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 94

Major infectious diseases: 
Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhoea, hepatitis a, and typhoid fever
Vector borne disease: rift valley fever
Water contact disease: Schistosomiasis
Note: highly pathogenic h5n1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)

Nationality: 
Noun: Egyptian(s)
Adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic groups: 
Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

Religions: 
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%

Languages: 
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

Literacy: 
Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 71.4%
Male: 83%
Female: 59.4% (2005 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
Total: 11 years
Male: 11 years
Female: 11 years (2004)

Education expenditures: 
3.8% of GDP (2008)
Country comparison to the world: 110

 


 Goverment

Country name: 
Conventional long form: Arab republic of Egypt
Conventional short form: Egypt
Local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr Al-Arabiyah
Local short form: Misr
Former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type: 
Republic

Capital: 
Name: Cairo
Geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
Time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during standard time)

Administrative divisions: 
29 governorates (Muhafazat, singular – Muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr Al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah (El Beheira), Al Fayyum (El Fayoum), Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma’iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah (El Monofia), Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi Al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf (Beni Suef), Bur Sa’id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Helwan, Janub Sina’ (South Sinai), Kafr Ash Shaykh, Matruh (Western Desert), Qina (Qena), Shamal Sina’ (North Sinai), Sittah Uktubar, Suhaj (Sohag)

Independence: 
28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note – it was ca. 3200 BCE that the two lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically

National holiday: 
Revolution day, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 
11 September 1971; amended 22 may 1980, 25 may 2005, and 26 march 2007; note – constitution dissolved by the military caretaker government 13 February 2011

Legal system: 
Based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and council of state (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage: 
18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: 
Chief of state: President (vacant); Vice President (vacant); note – following the resignation of President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak in February 2011, the supreme council of the armed forces, headed by defence minister Muhammad Hussein Tantawi, assumed control of the government
Head of government: Prime Minister Essam Abdel Aziz Sharaf (since 4 March 2011); Deputy Prime Minister Yehia El-Gamal (since 24 February 2011)
Cabinet: a new cabinet was sworn in on 7 March 2011

Elections: President elected by popular vote for a six-year term (no term limits)
Election results: Hosni Mubarak re-elected President; percent of vote – Hosni Mubarak 88.6%, Ayman Nour 7.6%, Noman Gomaa 2.9%

Legislative branch: 
Bicameral system consists of the advisory council or Majlis Al-Shura (Shura Council) that traditionally functions mostly in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 members elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the President; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members) and the people’s assembly or Majlis Al-Sha’b (518 seats; 508 members elected by popular vote, 64 seats reserved for women, 10 appointed by the President; members serve five-year terms)

Elections: advisory council – last held in June 2010 (next to be held in 2013); people’s assembly – last held in November-December 2010 in one round of voting and one run-off election (next to be held in 2015); note – on 13 February 2011 the ruling military council dissolved the parliament
Election results: advisory council – percent of vote by party – Na; seats by party – NDP 80, Al-Geel 1, Nasserist 1, NWP 1, Tagammu 1, Tomorrow Party 1, Independents 3; People’s Assembly – percent of vote by party – Na; seats by party – NDP 419, NWP 6, Tagammu 5, Democratic Peace Party 1, Social Justice Party 1, Tomorrow Party 1, Independents 71, seats undecided 4, seats appointed by President 10

Judicial branch: 
Supreme constitutional court

Political parties and leaders: 
Al-Geel; Democratic Peace Party; Nasserist Party [Ahmed Hassan]; National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni Mubarak]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat El-Said]; New WAFD Party or NWP [Sayed El-Bedawy]; Social Justice Party [Mohamed Abdel Al Hasan]; Tomorrow Party [Ayman Nour]
Note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed

Political pressure groups and leaders: 
Muslim Brotherhood (technically illegal)
Note: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Egypt’s most potentially significant political opposition; President Mubarak has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence (its members compete as independents in elections but do not currently hold any seats in the legislature); civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned; internet social networking groups and bloggers

International organization participation:
ABEDA, AFDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CICA, COMESA, D-8, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OIF, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Flag description: 
Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centred in the white band; the band colours derive from the Arab liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
Note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centred in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band

National anthem: 
Name: “Bilady, Bilady, Bilady” (my homeland, my homeland, my homeland)
Lyrics/music: Younis-Al Gadi/Sayed Darwish
Note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed Darwish, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem


Economy

[E]gypt has one of the most diverse economies in North-Africa and the Middle-East with the various sectors employing the following amounts of people: agriculture 32%; industry 17%; services 39%; and tourism 12%.

Economy – overview: 
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt’s economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel Nasser but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar el-Sadat and Mohamed Hosni Mubarak. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. The global financial crisis slowed the reform efforts. The budget deficit climbed to over 8% of GDP and Egypt’s GDP growth slowed to 4.6% in 2009, predominately due to reduced growth in export-oriented sectors, including manufacturing and tourism, and Suez Canal revenues. In 2010, the government spent more on infrastructure and public projects, and exports drove GDP growth to more than 5%, but GDP growth in 2011 is unlikely to bounce back to pre-global financial recession levels, when it stood at 7%. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remain poor.

GDP (purchasing power parity): 
$500.9 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27
$475.7 billion (2009 est.)
$454.8 billion (2008 est.)
Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate): 
$216.8 billion (2010 est.)

GDP – real growth rate: 
5.3% (2010 est.)

Country comparison to the world: 55
4.6% (2009 est.)
7.2% (2008 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP): 
$6,200 (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 136
$6,000 (2009 est.)
$5,900 (2008 est.)
Note: data are in 2010 US dollars

GDP – composition by sector: 
Agriculture: 13.5%
Industry: 37.9%
Services: 48.6% (2010 est.)

Labour force: 
26.1 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Labour force – by occupation: 
Agriculture: 32%
Industry: 17%
Services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate: 
9.7% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 107
9.4% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line: 
20% (2005 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share: 
Lowest 10%: 3.9%
Highest 10%: 27.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income – Gini index: 
34.4 (2001)
Country comparison to the world: 90

Investment (gross fixed): 
18.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 108

Budget:
Revenues: $46.82 billion
Expenditures: $64.19 billion (2010 est.)

Public debt: 
80.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 16
80.9% of GDP (2009 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.8% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 208
11.9% (2009 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
8.5% (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 34
11.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
11.98% (31 December 2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 65
12.33% (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$37.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
$33.42 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of broad money: 
$166.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42
$146.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of domestic credit: 
$145.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 42
$131.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares: 
$89.95 billion (31 December 2009)
Country comparison to the world: 43
$85.89 billion (31 December 2008)
$139.3 billion (31 December 2007)

Agriculture – products: 
Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats

Industries: 
Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures

Industrial production growth rate: 
5.5% (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Electricity – production:
118.4 billion KwH (2007 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 28

Oil – production:
680,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 29

Oil – consumption: 
683,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 25

Oil – exports:
89,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 68

Oil – imports: 
48,450 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 85
Oil – proved reserves: 
4.3 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 27

Natural gas – production: 
62.7 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 14

Natural gas – consumption: 
42.5 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Natural gas – exports: 
8.55 billion cu m (2009 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Natural gas – proved reserves:
1.656 trillion cu m (1 January 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 22

Current account balance: 
$270 million (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 54
$-3.195 billion (2009 est.)

Exports: 
$25.34 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$23.09 billion (2009 est.)

Exports – commodities: 
Crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food

Exports – partners: 
Us 7.95%, Italy 7.26%, Spain 6.78%, India 6.69%, Saudi Arabia 5.53%, Syria 5.3%, France 4.39%, South Korea 4.27% (2009)

Imports: 
$46.52 billion (2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 49
$45.56 billion (2009 est.)

Imports – commodities: 
Machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels

Imports – partners: 
Us 9.92%, china 9.63%, Germany 6.98%, Italy 6.88%, turkey 4.94% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: 
$35.72 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 34
$33.93 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Debt – external: 
$30.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 64
$29.66 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: 
$72.41 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 48
$66.71 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
$4.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Country comparison to the world: 59
$4.272 billion (31 December 2009 est.)


 Communications

Telephones – main lines in use: 
10.313 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 21

Telephones – mobile cellular: 
55.352 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 19

Telephone system: 
General assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centres at Alexandria, Cairo, al Mansoura, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
Domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2010 there were three mobile-cellular networks with a total of more than 55 million subscribers
International: country code – 20; landing point for aletar, the sea-me-we-3 and sea-me-we-4 submarine cable networks, link around the globe (flag) falcon and flag fea; satellite earth stations – 4 (2 Intelsat – Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in medarabtel (2009)

Broadcast media: 
Mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately-owned radio stations operational (2008)

Internet country code:
.eg

Internet hosts: 
187,197 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 67

Internet users: 
20.136 million (2009)
Country comparison to the world: 21


 

 Transportation

Airports: 
86 (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 66

Airports – with paved runways: 
Total: 73
Over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 2
Under 914 m: 5 (2010)

Airports – with unpaved runways: 
Total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
Under 914 m: 4 (2010)

Heliports: 
6 (2010)

Pipelines: 
Condensate 320 km; condensate/gas 13 km; gas 6,628 km; liquid petroleum gas 956 km; oil 4,332 km; oil/gas/water 3 km; refined products 895 km; water 13 km (2010)

Railways: 
Total: 5,083 km
Country comparison to the world: 35
Standard gauge: 5,083 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2010)

Roadways: 
Total: 65,050 km
Country comparison to the world: 70
Paved: 47,500 km
Unpaved: 17,550 km (2009)

Waterways:
3,500 km (includes the River Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2010)
Country comparison to the world: 29

Merchant marine: 
Total: 66
Country comparison to the world: 63
By type: bulk carrier 11, cargo 24, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9
Foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)
Registered in other countries: 52 (Cambodia 12, Cook Islands 1, Georgia 11, Honduras 2, Malta 1, marshal Islands 1, Moldova 5, panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 2, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals: 
Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Sidi Kurayr, Suez
Military service age and obligation: 
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)


 Military

The Egyptian Armed Forces are the largest in Africa, and the Middle East, and is the 10th most powerful in the world. Egypt is one of the few countries in the world and the only Arab state, with reconnaissance satellite system . Military service age and obligation:  18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2008)

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